used to convey an idea using implications on key performance indicators.
needs to be done prior to ERP implementation decision.
1- Keep legacy and improve it: some companies who implement erp return to legacy
2- Best of breed: has advantages of customization and quality but creates more overhead due to numerous upgrades. Also the programming language for each program is different, meaning highly skilled personnel may be needed for customization.
Best of breed may be different programs used together or applied on existing ERP systems with addons.
Consultant should check for documentation of business processes. If the company did not do its homework they will not have the required documentation. The consultant must address this problem before starting implementation. Exchange of information between consultant and company will show how the implementation will be undertaken. Learn how the ERP system works for your function(if you're a function manager).
4- Custom/In-house development
Considering the tool before SWOT & GAP analysis would create bias in analysis. You should first make the analysis then pick an option, or make the analysis for each system and pick the one that best fits.
Workshop-Current State-Future State-Options-System Provider selection(company representatives may come for sale, you can attend seminars, you can ask other companies who implemented these systems [ask questions!])
i.e. SAP users group
the sales people for the system are not usually implementation people, therefore not a very good source.
Siebel CRM - review
advantages: keeps record of customer information, and updates.
disadvantages: the salespeople like personal relationships and selling. They might not want to share the info or not have the time to record the data.
OCM: Organizational Change Management
Looks like the soft stuff but really is the hard stuff. People think implementation is the real thing, but OCM is more important.
OCM prepares the management team and employees for the change to be brought about by ERP.
WelchAllyn - Family Medical Business - f.1915
implemented SAP in 2004 in 2 plants.
Company goal: grow organicly and through acquisitions.
Old infrastructure cannot manage the change.
-6 team leaders (management team)
-23 full time project members
-system integrators - capgemini - 17 full time consultants
-2 years program with 40 people in a room.
The changes that pose a challenge:
5 initiatives of OCM:
core team training(onsite and offsite), management seminar, end user training (training needs analysis, develop course contents, deliver training courses, practice before go live, refresher courses for newcomers)
Communication plan: Content, audience, method of expression, frequency, who will deliver, origin, time.
Fishbone analysis: Potential failure areas / impact / likelihood / solution
- security role development
Groups of users in each functional area: new responsibilities after SAP? New jobs evolve? New SAP transactions to do the job?
Groups: Sales & Marketing (Sales, customer service, repair), Manufacturing (Production, forecasting)
Assess group functions and potential functions and give roles in bundle of transactions accordingly. There also are readonly roles. tedious procedure top-down then bottom-up.
Once gone live, roles will be adjusted.
- super user organization
Develop the SUO: Determine objectives, identify criteria, identify 10% of end users as candidates, select and train super users, help desk, communications.
are people who know the processes and should be very helpful people.
- business processes & procedures [BPP]
strategy & tactics to capture, document and control business process & procedures
what, where & how to control & store documents
website for easy access to SAP online help
actions can be recorded with screenshots to create tutorials for different transactions
Security will define roles... different courses for each role.
What is the company culture?
values, beliefs etc.
expressed in employee behavior
management sets tone
influenced by customers
usually revealed in problem solving
entrepreneurial vs bureucratic
team focus vs independent
risk taking vs risk averse
trust vs fear